華章英韻|朱淑真《初秋雨晴》任誠剛英譯 ‖第10期

作者:朱淑真詩 任誠剛譯 | 來源:中詩網 | 2019-09-21 | 閱讀: 次    


王如利(Wang Ruli)
丁立群(Ding Liqun)


  The End of Heat ushers us into the early autumn. Dear Reader, do you feel the cool in the autumn morning and evening? How do you feel afteran early autumn rain? For this issue of Chinese Verse in English Rhyme, it's a great honor for us to invite Prof. Ren Chenggang to translate Early Autumn Rain Making A Fine Day written by Zhu Shuzhen, a poetess of the Song dynasty. Using poetry to translate poetry to strive for the “Three Beauties” is what Prof. Ren has always sought. Just enjoy the growing autumnal tone in the beautiful translation of the beautiful poem.
中文朗誦:丁立群 英文朗誦:張明彬

[宋] 朱淑真
Early Autumn Rain Making A Fine Day
By ZHU Shuzhen (Song Dynasty)
Translated by REN Chenggang
After the rain cool breeze can drive the summer heat away,
In my court autumn is signaled by falls of plane tree leaves.
Gone with the dusk floating clouds are wafting along the way,
A new moon hangs as a jade hook above one corner of eaves.
  Translator's Words
  大暑之后會迎來秋天, 古人作詩常伴有“春花”“秋月”更不會漏掉“秋雨”。說到“秋雨”人們便會想到李商隱的《夜雨寄北》中的“巴山夜雨漲秋池”;也會想到譯原電子雜志前些時候組織過的中國現代詩歌朱湘的《雨景》之翻譯。該詩原句有:“……從云氣中,不知哪里,飄來了一聲清脆的鳥鳴。”今天我選譯的這首朱淑真的《初秋雨晴》有“雨后風涼暑氣收”,不正是與前面的兩首詩從語義和語境來看有著“異曲同工”之效嗎?
  我譯第一句“風涼”用偏正結構說涼風(cool breeze);第二句的“葉葉”我的理解是梧桐樹葉一片片落下。“梧桐”的英文可以有幾種—— sycamore,buttonwood,phoenix, 及plane, 考慮到選詞的音節數及普遍流行的認可度(不一定是植物學的專業表達),我采用了plane tree來譯梧桐樹。而這個“報”我不譯成report,而是用增詞法signaled by falls。這樣就道明了“葉落秋至”。第三行的“浮云盡逐”,作者為什么要這樣來寫,我認為是有兩個目的的,一是強調主謂結構,使“黃昏”有了施動者;二是用“浮云逐黃昏”有了“天象”中的時空。用Gone with the dusk表示“黃昏去也”。第四行“新蟾”我用了歸化策略來譯,直接譯成new moon。這樣,英語讀者容易接受,盡管漢語言中異化的“陌生感”在英語里不見了。還有,“樓角”為什么用one corner of eaves?因為屋檐的角會有兩邊,而要明確兩邊中的其一,是指明了方位的。

  The hosts of Chinese Verse in English Rhyme DING Liqun and WANG Ruli invite me to participate in the "Early Autumn" topics of ancient Chinese poem translation, I've been in a state of fear, and it is difficult to push away the task. However, I am also very grateful, as this is a rare opportunity for me to learn translation and poetry appreciation, so I gladly accept it.
  After the great heat it will usher us into autumn. Ancient poetry is often accompanied by Spring Flowers, and Autumn Moon, of course, Autumn Rain will not be missed. Speaking of Autumn Rain, it will remind people of the poem: In Mountain Ba, the pools are brimming with autumn rain, by LI Shangyin in his A Poem to My Home in the North on a Rainy Night; It will also remind readers of ZHU Xiang's modern Chinese poem The Rain Scene, which was organized to do English translation some time ago in the Poem Translation E-magazine. The translation line of the poem reads: "... And out of the clouds, I have no idea / where from is wafting a bird's chirping so clear." Today I have chosen to translate ZHU Shuzhen’s Early Autumn Rain Making A Fine Day, which has the similar effect of “cool autumn rain” on semantics and context of the above two poems.
  The first sentence of ZHU Shuzhen's seven-character Jueju describes the big surrounding climate, praising the breeze rising after the rain and the heat being driven away. On the second sentence: the leaves of the plane trees in the author's courtyard turn yellow and fall one by one gently to the ground, which is exactly the depiction of the arrival of autumn. On the third sentence: the clouds in the sky would drive away the heat dusk, denoting that the night is coming. Note in the third sentence, "Gone with the Dusk", implying the night time comes. The last sentence is to develop the night scene in the third sentence, and above one corner of eaves on the attic hanging a crescent moon. Here, the crescent moon is not a full moon, but a moon in the wane. In the "new toad" in the fourth sentence, the poet uses the myth "toad" to express the moon; and "hanging as a jade hook" refers to the jade color of the waning moon. The "hook" here also vividly depicts the shape of the waning moon. The narrator of this poem draws the whole picture in a far-and-near crossing way.
  In translation of the first line“風涼”I take adjective-and-noun structure as “cool breeze”; In the second line “葉葉”I take it as leaves on plane tree fall one by one. There are several words for translation of “梧桐”in English as "sycamore", “buttonwood”, “phoenix”, and “plane”. Considering the number of syllables and the popular recognition (not necessarily the professional expression of botany), I use “plane tree” to translate“梧桐”. For“報” I don't use “report”, instead, the multiplying method is applied as “signaled by falls”. In this way, “leaves fall indicating autumn's arrival”. In the third line, the translation means “the dusk is gone by driving of the floating clouds”. Why does the author write like this? I think there are two purposes. One is to use Subject-Verb structure, making the "dusk" to have an agent; second, let “floating clouds drive away the dusk” signal time-and-space in the heaven. “Gone with the dusk” indicating it's getting dark. The fourth line, "new toad", is translated directly into "new moon". In this way, English readers are easy to accept, although the alienation of "strangeness" in Chinese language has disappeared in English. What else, why“樓角”is taken as “one corner of eaves” ? Because the corners of the eaves suppose to have two sides, and to specify one of them is to specify the orientation.
  In Chinese the first, second and fourth sentences of the poem the rhyme — [ou] is applied, whereas the third line uses oblique tone without rhyme. I put the Chinese poem into English poem using the rhyme scheme: abab which is crossing type of rhyme, also it is in accordance with the description of the original order, that is, from far to near, a form of the intersection. The English translation of the poem is 7 iambic of 14 syllables in each line. It is ideal for the seven-character Jueju of Chinese poem translated into English by seven-foot in each. It is concise and natural, with beauty in "sound" and "form". If the translation of meaning of the original poem is also well done, it will achieve what I have always sought: using poetry to translate poetry to strive for the "Three Beauties".

The Translator
  Ren Chenggang (1958 -), a professor of English, College of Foreign Languages, Yunnan Agricultural University; Guest professor of Dianchi College, Yunnan University; who is mainly engaged in the teaching of translation theory and practice for MTI students, and is a member of China Poetry Society and a council member of Yunnan Translators Association. After living in the United States for 14 years, he returned to China in 1998, and has taught English in College of Foreign Languages of Yunnan Agricultural University since then.
  His works include in The Contemporary Chinese Poetry: Jueju (quatrains) (1998), Lvshi (Octet) (1999), and Ci (Lyrics) (2000); Literature achievement includes in “Who's Who in the World” (New Century Vol.); “World Talent Dictionary in Art and Literature” (Asia Pacific Culture Press. 2000. Hong Kong). He is the author of books: Autographic Poetry in America (1999);Comparative Appreciation and Inter-translation of Selected English and Chinese Poems (2013);Comprehending Great Master — Appreciation of O. Henry's 9 of Hundreds of Short Stories (2015);and Chinese-English Translation of 100 Poems of Tian An Men (Rhymed Ver. 2016);Rhyme (2017) etc. And he has published over 50 academic papers.

責任編輯: 西江月

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